Web browsers, privacy, and federated identity Dr. Jane Smith is a postdoc at a major research institution. Overnight, she upgraded her Apple Macbook to the latest version of Apple’s MacOS. While in her lab she powers up her Macbook and connects to the campus WiFi network. She reads an email from a colleague containing a link to a recently published journal article. She clicks the link, which launches the Safari browser on her Macbook, but receives a message from the publisher’s website saying she doesn’t have access to the article.